Canada covers an area of 9,985,000 km² in the north of mainland North America. The eastern shores of the country are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the western shores by the Pacific Ocean, and the northern shores by the Arctic Ocean. Canada has maritime borders with France and Denmark, as well as a land border with the United States. In total, the coastline is more than 200,000 km long. Canada is a bilingual country with French and English as official languages.
The country’s territory is mostly plains. In western Canada there are mountains with popular ski resorts. The highest point in the country is Mount Logan, which reaches a height of 6,000 meters.
Canada has vast areas with varied topographic characteristics, so climatic conditions vary greatly in different parts of the country. Much of Northern Canada is characterized by a subarctic climate. Regions subject to it are covered with snow and ice for more than half a year. Land in coastal British Columbia has an oceanic climate with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers. If you’re planning a trip to Canada, check the weather calendar by month to help you plan your vacation.
Canadian Weather in January
January is Canada’s coldest month. The weather in January will vary from area to area. The coastal regions and the Great Lakes (Ontario, Newfoundland, and Quebec) will have temperatures of -9°C during the day and -12°C at night. Water near the coast warms up to +5°C. On windy days in the north of Canada the thermometer may fall to -40°C. Vancouver is warmest in January with daytime temperatures of up to +6°C and +4°C at night. Rainfall in this region will be 180 mm, while in the rest of the country – 50 mm (in the form of snow). Many cities are covered with dense snow cover. The winter months are ideal for holidays at the country’s ski resorts.
Weather in Canada in February
A typical winter in Vancouver is constant rain. Temperatures usually drop to -5°C for a week and then rise to +8°C. In Toronto, temperatures often drop below freezing (-3°C during the day and -6°C at night). However, it can start snowing at any time. In the north of the country the daytime temperature is -35°C and after sunset it gets as cold as -45°C. In the central and eastern part of the country, the average air mass temperature is -4°C during the day and -14°C at night. In Ottawa, there are 2-3 days in February when nighttime temperatures drop to -20°C. Usually it is -5°C during daylight hours and about -14°C at night. The water temperature in the oceans is +1°C in the east and +7°C in the west.
The weather in Canada in March
As spring arrives, daytime temperatures rise and snow begins to melt. Temperatures are now as low as +1°C in Montreal and Calgary during the day but drop to -5°C at night. Temperatures are -30°C during the day and -20°C at night in the north-west of the country (Yukon). No precipitation is observed here. During the day, the air in Vancouver warms up to +10 ° C and the ocean water – to +8 ° C. The average daytime temperature in the country reaches +2°C, and at night it reaches -7°C.
Canadian weather in April
You can expect up to 10 degrees Celsius in April (+11°C during the day and +1°C at night), but temperatures are similar across most of Canada. In northernmost Canada, the coldest temperatures may be as low as -20°C. In the north-west (Yukon), the minimum is -1°C during the day, and -10°C at night. Ocean water will warm to +10°C in the southwest, and +4°C on the eastern coast. Most precipitation is expected in the east (up to 80 mm), and in the rest of the territory up to 40 mm for 2-4 rainy days.
Weather in Canada in May
The highest daytime temperatures are expected in Montreal, Ottawa and Vancouver: +16°C … +19°C during the day and +11°C at night. The water near the coast reaches a maximum temperature of +12°C. Away from the coastal regions the climate has a more pronounced continental character. The average daytime temperature reaches +15°C and it goes down to +7°C at night. Precipitation is expected throughout the country. Rainfall ranges from 35 mm (Faro) to 70 mm (Quebec) for 3 to 5 rainy days.
Canadian weather in June
June in Vancouver, Montreal, Toronto feels the arrival of summer: about +23°C during the day and up to +15°C at night. The sea warms up to +19°C. Nice weather and in Calgary, Quebec, Ottawa – during the day about +20 ° C and at night up to +10 ° C. At the foot of the mountains, the sun warms the air to +16°C during the day, and the maximum is 3 rainy days (up to 50 mm of precipitation). A total of 4 to 6 rainy days will produce 60 to 90 mm of rainfall.
Weather in Canada in July
The weather in July is hot only in the southern part of the country; the rest of the country does not experience elevated temperatures. Clear and clear skies quickly become overcast, but rainfall is light and brief. Average daytime air mass temperatures across the country are about +25°C, and after sunset, +15°C. In Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg in July averages +26 ° C … +29 ° C during the day and about +17 ° C … +20 ° C in the dark. The water temperature off the Canadian coast is +19 ° C … +22 ° C. The rainfall in July ranges from 40 to 70 mm.
Weather in Canada in August
August is the second hottest month of the year, after July. Temperatures are exactly the same as in the previous month. During the day, the temperature in the country is +25 ° C, and at night it drops by 10 marks. The water temperature off the coast ranges from +19 ° C to +23 ° C. Rainfall on 3-5 rainy days will be 50-80 mm.
Weather in Canada in September
As September arrives, the weather still resembles summer weather, but the evenings are already a little cooler. The average daytime temperature in the country stays at +20°C, dropping to +10°C at night. In the southwest and southeast of the country, the air warms up to +21 ° C during the day and up to +13 ° C at night. Water in the Pacific Ocean heats up to +15° C and in the Atlantic Ocean – up to +21° C. Clear skies are sometimes covered with clouds, but rainfall is rare and does not last long. Between 30 mm and 70 mm of rain falls on 2 to 4 rainy days per month.
Canadian Weather in October
The weather in October is very autumnal with noticeably shorter days, more rain, and more frequent cold winds. If in the most parts of Canada during the daytime thermometers show +10 ° C … +14 ° C, the north-west (Yukon) welcomes the first frosts – to -2 ° C during the day and -8 ° C at night. On average, expect about 60 mm of precipitation in the country. Vancouver is the rainiest with 115 mm of precipitation. Water in the oceans warms to +9 ° C … +14 ° C.
Weather in Canada in November
In Winnipeg and Calgary daytime temperatures are already -1°C and nighttime temperatures drop to -5°C. In the highlands of the country recorded at -30°C, and in the northwest (Yukon) thermometers show -15°C during the day and -18°C at night. Daytime air in Vancouver and Toronto warms to +9°C and water off the coast to +8°C. Vancouver is the wettest in November with 150 mm of rainfall, while the rest of the country has 50 mm.
Weather in Canada in December
The weather in Canada in December is -3°C … -6°C during the day and around -10°C after sundown. The west coast (Vancouver) is characterized by precipitation, which reaches a maximum of 150 mm in winter. Average monthly temperatures here are usually above freezing: +6°C during the day and +3°C at night. Vancouver will have 180 mm of precipitation, while the rest of the country will have 50 mm. It is still warm during the day in Toronto (up to +3°C), but nights are already frosty (-5°C). The water near the coast warms up to +5°C … +7°C. Tourists come to the mountainous regions of the country to admire the unique northern lights.